I am working on a method of configuring an efficient cell, based on operating voltage. At present, it only pertains to Plates. I have Tubes started but it is going to be more complicated.
Faraday tells us that 1.24 volts is the optimum voltage for electrolysis efficiency, with the least amount of heat loss. That is, 1.24 volts between 2 plates that make a water compartment. Higher voltage results in excess heat. Yule Brown uses 1.48 volts and Bob Boyce uses 2.0 volts. Through trial and error, I have concluded that Faraday's 1.24 volts is impractical when using a 12 to 15 volt power source, because of the amount of electrolyte needed to lower the resistance of the water.
We know that the cell voltage is obtained by dividing the operating voltage by the number of cells in Series (isolated water compartments located between positive and negative terminals).
We know that each square inch of a plate surface, on one side, operates efficiently with 0.5 amps of electrical current. Higher amperage, per square inch, increases HHO production, but causes excessive heat.
We also know that the amount of HHO gas produced is in direct proportion to the amount of watts we use. So more surface area will increase the optimal operating amperage we can use. Surface area can be increased by increasing the size of the plates, and by increasing the number of plates.
We also know that Hydrogen and Oxygen are produced on opposite plates.
So now we can use this information to configure an efficient Cell. First, we need to measure the output of our power source. Why? Because it is required in order to figure the optimum voltage between adjacent plates (cell water area).
If our vehicle's alternator is supplying 13.5 volts, under a load, and we want to try and achieve 2 volts per cell, then we need to divide 13.5 volts by 2 volts in order to get the number of cells needed. If we figure 8, that will be close, 1.93 volts, 7 cells would be 2.25 volts per cell.
Now add 1 to the number of cells and that is how many Plates we will need.
To make this easy, I made a simple Calculator for you. It lets you enter your operating voltage, and the size of your plates, then it calculates the number of plates needed to achieve the optimal amperage for maximum efficiency with minimum heat loss. Heat is what drives us nuts. We pour on the amps in order to get out more gases. In doing so, we loose operating efficiency by creating excess heat. The configurator also can do plates that have round gaskets. I even made it possible for you to change the number of plates; good for comparison, and good for calculating your old cells.
The most efficient cell has one Positive plate and one Negative plate, with Neutral plates between them. That is a Series Configuration. The same electrical current passes from the negative plate (-) to each neutral plate on its way to the positive plate. It would look something like this ( - n n n n n n n n + ). The neutral plates cause a voltage drop between plates. It is that voltage drop that we need to calculate for efficiency. Simply counting all of the water spaces, regardless of the number of positive and negative plates, will not cut it if there are multiple positive and or negatives. If the voltage drop in each cell (between positive and negative), does not add up to the value of the operating supply voltage, then you are not doing correct calculations.
Series Parallel cells have multiple positives or negatives ( - n n n + n n n - ). A Series Parallel Cell is actually 2 Series cells ( - n n n +) (+ n n n - ). They can not be calculated as 1 cell. The reason is, they are 2 cells. The cell voltage is cut in half, every time a neutral is added. No neutrals means full battery voltage or alternator voltage. One neutral cuts that in half. Two neutrals cuts it in half again; etc. etc. etc.
If your cell has alternating positive and negative plates, you will never achieve operating efficiency
(+ - + - + - + - ). You will always have operating voltage supplied to each cell. That is about as Brute as you can get. It will make a lot of gas and a lot of heat. Plus, the amperage will eat up the positive plates faster than any other configuration. Have you ever seen a Wire cell? Hello ! They make good water heaters. You pour the amperage to them in order to get them to make gas. It does not take long for them to heat up and to deteriorate. What Wire cells do best is create water vapor. It is that water vapor that is providing most of the fuel efficiency increase. It has to be. Wire cells just do not make enough HHO to account for the benefit they provide. (ok Ozie, your secret is out).
So, now we have come full circle. We started out with Brute Force alternating positive and negative plates. Then we figured out that a series of Neutral plates lowered the heat and produced more gas. Then we figured out how to combine two series cells into one big cell, and how to maximize the efficiency and produce more gas than heat. All along the way, the ratio of gas increased while the water vapor decreased. We did this because the experts warned us to keep the water vapor out of the engine. It is bad for the engine. It will rust the engine. It will rust the injectors. Blah Blah Blah. Hog wash. Your engine was designed to handle the vapor. Modern engines even measure the vapor and adjust to it. So in closing, I will offer one suggestion. If you want to make HHO and or water vapor, start with a safe container; one that can take the Heat.